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The Journal of Business Ethics publishes only original articles from a wide variety of methodological and disciplinary perspectives concerning ethical issues related to business that bring something new or unique to the discourse in their field. From its inception the Journal has aimed to improve the human condition by providing a public forum for discussion and debate about ethical issues related to business. In order to promote a dialogue between the various interested groups as much as possible, papers are presented in a style relatively free of specialist jargon.FT 50 - This journal is one of the 50 journals used by the Financial Times in compiling the prestigious Business School research rankClarivates Journal Citation Reports Ranking by Category- Ethics 2/56- Business 54/154Section Descriptions
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The list below is a guide to some of the main issues requiring consideration from an ethical point of view in manuscripts submitted to Animal Behaviour. It is a guide only and not intended to be exhaustive. Its purpose is to encourage authors to reflect on their procedures prior to submitting their manuscript for review to reduce the need for Editors to request further details. See also the 'Guidelines for the ethical treatment of nonhuman animals in behavioural research and teaching' (updated in each January issue of the journal: ). For further details on how to report experiments using live animals, see the ARRIVE guidelines ( -guidelines). For studies involving human subjects, please refer to Specify the authority who granted any licences or permits for the study, both for animal collection and data collection, and include approval/permit numbers. Such permissions include (but are not limited to) IACUC/IRB, AWERB, federal, state/provincial and local collection permits, import/export permits and permissions from local ethics committees. Statements such as 'the study conforms to legal requirements' are insufficient.
Clearly state and justify the number of individuals involved in the study, together with age (or age class if exact ages are unknown) and sex. Where applicable, refer to previously published work, pilot studies or power analyses.
State the origins or source of subjects. For wild animals, provide information regarding welfare concerns and minimizing stress during capture and transport. If traps were used, give details regarding the type of trap, baiting, drugs used during capture, routines for checking traps (e.g. frequency, times of day), provision of shelter, bedding, food and water. For humans, provide details on participant recruitment or compensation. Provide details if the study included vulnerable populations.
Provide details of housing or environmental conditions; for example, cage or tank size, number of animals per cage/tank, temperature, light:dark regime, relative humidity, bedding, diet, water, whether food and water were provided ad libitum, shelter and environmental enrichment. If any of these were restricted or did not follow common standards for the species, reasons should be stated. Authors might wish to make explicit reference to taxon-specific requirements, constraints or limitations. However, statements such as 'animals were housed in accordance with species standards' are insufficient
If the observer or experimenter's activities could have caused disturbance (e.g. approaching marine animals by boat or a colony of breeding birds), give details of the disturbance, if any, as well as strategies to minimize disturbance. For human subjects, state how confidentiality or anonymity was maintained, and informed consent obtained.
If the study involved invasive or potentially harmful techniques, give full details of the procedure, any possible short-term or long-term adverse effects, and steps taken to minimize those effects. For nonhuman subjects, invasive and potentially harmful techniques might include (but are not limited to): marking, use of live vertebrate food, blood and tissue sampling, anaesthesia, chemical or hormone manipulations, staged fights or predation (including the use of stimuli of predators), parasitism, exposure to parasites, removal of individuals from a territory or group (e.g. during captive studies of wild animals), plumage or colour manipulations, food deprivation or limitation, diet manipulations, social deprivation, separation of mother and offspring, infanticide, drug administration, hot plate or other potentially harmful tests, manipulations of broods or litters, manipulations of the environment with potentially harmful effects. For human subjects, invasive and potentially harmful techniques might include (but are not limited to): deceit, withholding informed consent, questions pertaining to identity, traumas or personal health, blood and tissue sampling, chemical manipulation, exposure to violent or traumatic materials, social deprivation or manipulation.
Provide details regarding the disposal or humane end points of nonhuman animals at the end of the study. If nonhuman animals were euthanized, the reason should be stated, and the method described. If nonhuman animals were released, state when and where, and provide acknowledgment of legal authorization.
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